Cambodia 2.jpg

Conservation Management

Phnom Bakheng

Phnom Bakheng was the first site that the Khmer’s settled when they moved to what we know today as the ancient city of Angkor. Removing the top 20% of the hill the ancient Khmer’s exposed the core live rock and carved it to support the 44 surrounding brick shrines and serve as a structural substrate for the large central temple and the 65 stone shrines that rest on the terraces of the central temple.


Angkor, Cambodia

Architect & Date

Unattributed, late 12th century


World Monuments Fund

Services Provided

ICR, specifically Glenn Boornazian, works as the Program Director for the World Monuments Fund project at Phnom Bakheng. The most recent work includes mobilization to the site and a stone conservation workshop to support the structural stabilization and conservation efforts. This phase of work is focused on the eastern section of the large Central Temple. 

  • Stabilization and conservation of temple and brick shrines

  • Archaeology & archival research

  • Landscape survey

  • Conditions survey and emergency recommendations

  • Structural assessment

  • Tourism management assessment

There have been two brick shrine conservation and stabilization workshops recently conducted which were dedicated to the development of in-situ treatment programs.  These workshops were attended by WMF staff, APSARA National Authority Staff, UNESCO Ad Hoc Committee members, international experts working at Angkor and international experts in the field of brick monument stabilization and conservation who had not worked at Angkor before. The information from this work has been published on the WMF website and is meant to benefit the brick shrines at Phnom Bakheng as well as similar structures throughout Angkor. In addition, the first of many conservation site management workshops was held which was dedicated to larger scale issues at the site such as: visitor management, water management, erosion control, improving the visitor experience with the use of signage, and an addition of a visitor’s center, as well as landscape management.